The word health refers to a state of complete emotional and physical well-being. Healthcare exists to help people maintain this optimal state of health. 

Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities. This means that health is a resource to support an individual’s function in wider society, rather than an end in itself. A healthy lifestyle provides the means to lead a full life with meaning and purpose.

Preserving health:


The best way to maintain health is to preserve it through a healthy lifestyle rather than waiting until sickness or infirmity to address health problems. People use the name wellness to describe this continuous state of enhanced well-being. 

Wellness promotes active awareness of and participating in measures that preserve health, both as an individual and in the community. Maintaining wellness and optimal health is a lifelong, daily commitment.

Now we are going to learn about healthcare. Healthcare is of two types.

1) Primary Health Care
2) Public Health Care





1) Primary Health Care:-


Primary Health Care in India must rely on low budget technologies. One such technology is ORS, it is a low-cost treatment for diarrhea & dehydration. It can be stored anywhere & hardly has any side effects.

Principles of Primary Health Care:-

i) Equitable Distribution:-

The majority of the healthcare services in India are concentrated in the towns & cities, whereas the rural areas which need healthcare services more hardly have any. Primary Health Care aims to redress this imbalance by focusing on the rural areas & bringing these services as close to people's homes as possible.

ii) Community Participation:-

As mentioned earlier, without the full participation of the local population, discharging healthcare needs is not possible. So the Government of India is training village health guides & local dais from the local community itself these people, being localities, can overcome the cultural & communication barriers more easily.

iii) Intersectoral Coordination:-

The government of India has realized that  Primary Health Care cannot be provided by the healthcare sector alone. The different wings of the government must come together & work in an integrated fashion.

iv) Appropriate Technology:-

Primary Health Care in India must rely on low budget technologies. One such technology is ORS, it is a low-cost treatment for diarrhea & dehydration. It can be stored anywhere & hardly has any side effects.

Levels of  Primary Health Care:-

i) Primary level:-

It is the first level of contact between the healthcare setup & the patient. It includes Subcentre & Primary Health Centre.

ii) Secondary level:-

The 1st referral level is the Community health center. Finally comes the Tertiary level which is the 2nd referral level. It includes Medical colleges & hospitals. In detail, it is the most peripheral & 1st contact point between the healthcare facility & the patient. It has 3 employees.....the health worker male, the health worker female & the voluntary worker. Also, the ministry of health & family welfare provides 100% funding for subcentres.





2) Public Health Care:-

It is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through the organized efforts of society. Public health focuses on improving the health of a population and preventing health problems before they happen.

It is a broad field and covers a range of topics such as air pollution, epidemiology, communicable disease control, risk assessment, and health promotion.

Public Health ultimately the responsibility of creating a healthy community rests with all sectors of society health departments do have a central role in public health, however, improving the health of a population requires the coordinated efforts of a broad range of stakeholders.

This includes other areas of government the private sector nongovernmental organizations international organizations and communities to name a few all United with a shared goal of improving the health of the public now.

How public health works: -

The World Federation of Public Health Association has developed a useful framework to understand how public health is delivered. There are three core service areas of Public Health and a group of enablers that ensure that these services can occur effectively and efficiently.

The three core areas of Public Health are protection, promotion, and prevention.

1) Protection is about protecting the health of the population. This includes the control of infectious diseases managing environmental hazards ensuring a healthy workplace and managing health emergencies.

2) Promotion is about improving the health of the population. It covers a broad range of activities that not only focuses on the individual like promoting health behaviors over the life course. It also focuses on improving the social determinants of health.

3) Prevention is about preventing health issues before they occur. It includes activities such as vaccination and screening to enable these core areas to function there needs to be good governance advocacy to influence, obtain support and commitment for actions.





There are a few different types of surveillance.

1) Passive surveillance:-

This type of surveillance is a valuable source of health information. One of the biggest advantages of this type of surveillance is that it's generally inexpensive.

It can be used to provide baseline data on the health of a population monitor trends or monitor the impact of intervention also different types of these datasets can be linked to provide a complete picture of health.

2) Active surveillance:-

This type of surveillance health data is actively sought out. This type of surveillance is commonly used during outbreaks. It provides more complete and better quality data but is more resource-intensive.

3) Sentinel surveillance:-

This type of surveillance uses selected institutions or groups to provide health data on specific diseases or conditions. It can be useful for monitoring disease trends and detecting outbreaks.

4) Rumor surveillance:-

This type of surveillance relies on unofficial sources of information like blogs, internet, discussion groups, media hearsay, and social media sites.

It can alert public health authorities to incidents or events that require further investigation and can lead to early detection of disease outbreaks.

5) Syndromic surveillance:-

This type of surveillance involves monitoring nonspecific syndromes like presentations for fever respiratory or gastrointestinal illness or other indicators that might highlight illness like the purchases of medicine or absenteeism from work or school.

The aim of this is to allow early identification of clusters of illness before diagnoses are confirmed and reported to public health agencies.